General Design and Gland Dimensions

STATIC FACE or FLANGE seals are much easier to design than static radial seals since in this type of design there is no extrusion gap. There are fewer design steps and tolerances are easier to control. There are two types of face seals: those designed for internal pressure and those designed for external pressure.
 

INTERNAL PRESSURE design is based upon the groove OD to limit the side movement in the groove due to pressure direction. Figure 25 shows a diagram for a face seal designed for internal pressure.

Grooved OD (outside diameter Y)
Groove Depth
Groove Width

Figure 25

This type of design is based upon groove OD to limit the side movement of the O-Ring in the groove due to pressure direction. Since the groove width is larger than the cross section of the O-Ring, then the design should be made for the O-Ring to have a snug fit on the grooved OD in order to limit O-Ring movement.

EXTERNAL PRESSURE or VACUUM design parameters are based upon the following:

Groove I.D. (inside diameter) (x)
Groove Depth
Groove Width

Figure 26

This design is based upon the groove I.D. to limit side movement in the groove due to pressure direction (Fig. 26)

Due to the absence of any extrusion gap, these seal designs are capable of withstanding very high pressures without encountering extrusion problems.

Bolt loading or clamping force should be sufficient to prevent any gap between mating flanges and to ensure proper squeeze. Flanges, especially in large application, should be sufficiently flat to prevent any extrusion gap and ensure proper squeeze.

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